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My home internet comes from Spectrum (formerly Time Warner Cable) and they offer IPv6 addresses for cable modem subscribers. One of the handy features they provide is DHCPv6 prefix delegation. If you’re not familiar with that topic, here’s a primer on how you get IPv6 addresses:
- SLAAC: Your machine selects an IPv6 address based on router advertisements
- DHCPv6: Your machine makes a DHCPv6 request (a lot like DHCP requests) and gets an address back to use
- DHCPv6 with prefix delegation: Your machine makes a special DHCPv6 request where you provide a hint about the size of the IPv6 network prefix you want.
Are you new to IPv6 subnets and how they’re different from IPv4? If so, you might want to read up on IPv6 subnets first.
In a previous post, I wrote about using wide-dhcpv6 to get IPv6 addresses and that guide still works, but using systemd-networkd makes the process much easier.
Who needs this many IP addresses? #
Yes, I know that a /64 IPv6 network contains 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 addresses and that should be enough for most home networks. Using one /64 network block per interface has plenty of benefits for simplifying your network, though.
A /56 from your provider contains 256 /64 networks and this makes it easy to configure up to 256 internal networks with a /64 on each. Breaking up a /64 subnet into pieces becomes frustrating very quickly.
Laying out the basic network #
My Linux router is a Dell Optiplex running Fedora 34 with a dual-port Intel I350 network card. These little machines are assembled well and last a long time. My network interfaces are set up like this:
enp2s0f0: connected to my cable modem for internet access
enp2s0f1: connected to a network bridge (
br0) for my LAN network
My LAN (192.168.10.0/24) gateway sits on
br0 and masquerades traffic out
enp2s0f0, the external network interface.
All of the systemd-networkd configuration lives in
/etc/systemd/network and we
will add some files there. First off, we need to set up the external network:
Now we need to set up the internal bridge
Then we can configure the
br0 network interface and IP address:
🤔 Special note: I like to add the
ConfigureWithoutCarrier option here
because systemd-network sometimes takes a while to bring the bridge online after
a reboot and that makes certain daemons, like
dnsmasq, fail to start.
Now let’s connect the bridge to the physical network interface with a bind:
systemctl restart systemd-networkd and ensure all of your networks
IDX LINK TYPE OPERATIONAL SETUP
1 lo loopback carrier unmanaged
2 enp2s0f0 ether routable configured
4 enp2s0f1 ether enslaved configured
5 br0 bridge routable configured
IPv6 time #
Every ISP is a bit different with how they assign IPv6 addresses and what size blocks they will allocate to you. I’ve seen where some will only give a /64, others give a /56, and others give something in between. As for Spectrum, they provide up to a /56 with a prefix delegation request. You may need to experiment with a /56 first and slowly back down towards /64 to see what your ISP might do.
Let’s go back to the configuration for the external interface and add our prefix delegation hint:
When we apply this configuration, systemd-networkd will send a DHCPv6 request with a prefix hint included.
That’s half the battle. We also need a way to take a /64 block from the big /56 block and assign it to various network interfaces on our router. You can do this manually by looking at the /56, choosing how to subnet your network, and then manually assigning /64 blocks to each interface.
Manually assigning subnets is not a fun task. It gets worse when your ISP suddenly changes the network blocks assigned to you on a whim. 😱
Luckily, systemd-networkd has built in functionality to do this for you
automatically! Let’s go back to the configuration for
br0 and add a few lines:
systemctl restart systemd-networkd to apply the changes. You should see an
IPv6 network assigned to the interface! 🎉
IPv6SendRA option tells systemd-networkd to automatically announce the
network block on the interface so that computers on the network will
automatically assign their own addresses via SLAAC. (You can retire
you used this in the past.)
DHCPv6PrefixDelegation to yes will automatically pull a subnet from
the prefix we asked for on the external network interface and add it to this
br0 in this case). There’s no need to calculate subnets, manage
configurations, or deal with changes. It all happens automatically.
If you have other interfaces, such as VLANs, simply add the
DHCPv6PrefixDelegation options to their network configurations (the
files, not the
.netdev files), and apply the configuration.
Photo credit: tian kuan on Unsplash