Managing firewall rules with iptables can be tricky at times. The rule syntax itself isn’t terribly difficult but you can quickly run into problems if you don’t save your rules to persistent storage after you get your firewall configured. Things can also get out of hand quickly if you run a lot of different tables with jumps scattered through each.
FirewallD’s goal is to make this process a bit easier by adding a daemon to the mix. You can send firewall adjustment requests to the daemon and it handles the iptables syntax for you. It can also write firewall configurations to disk. It’s especially useful on laptops since you can quickly jump between different firewall configurations based on the network you’re using. You might run a different set of firewall rules at a coffee shop than you would run at home.
Adding a trusted IP address to a device running firewalld requires the use of rich rules.
Consider a situation where you have a server and you want to allow unrestricted connectivity to that server from a bastion or from your home internet connection. First off, determine your default zone (which is most likely “public” unless you’ve changed it to something else):
# firewall-cmd --get-default-zone public
We will use 188.8.131.52 as our example IP address. Let’s add the rich rule:
firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-rich-rule='rule family="ipv4" source address="184.108.40.206" accept'
Let’s break down what we’re asking firewalld to do. We’re asking to allow IPv4 connectivity from 220.127.116.11 to all ports on the server and we’re asking for that rule to be added to the public (default) zone. If you list the contents of your public zone, it should look like this:
# firewall-cmd --list-all --zone=public public (default, active) interfaces: eth0 sources: services: dhcpv6-client mdns ssh ports: masquerade: no forward-ports: icmp-blocks: rich rules: rule family="ipv4" source address="18.104.22.168" accept