The latest release of the Red Hat Enterprise Linux Security Technical Implementation Guide (STIG) was published last week. This release is Version 1, Release 3, and it contains four main changes:
- V-77819 – Multifactor authentication is required for graphical logins
- V-77821 – Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) kernel module must be disabled
- V-77823 – Single user mode must require user authentication
- V-77825 – Address space layout randomization (ASLR) must be enabled
Let’s break down this list to understand what each one means.
V-77819 – Multifactor authentication is required for graphical logins
This requirement improves security for graphical logins and extends the existing requirements for multifactor authentication for logins (see V-71965, V-72417, and V-72427). The STIG recommends smartcards (since the US Government often uses CAC cards for multifactor authentication), and this is a good idea for high security systems.
I use Yubikey 4’s as smartcards in most situations and they work anywhere you have available USB slots.
V-77821 – Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) kernel module must be disabled
DCCP is often used as a congestion control mechanism for UDP traffic, but it isn’t used that often in modern networks. There have been vulnerabilities in the past that are mitigated by disabling DCCP, so it’s a good idea to disable it unless you have a strong reason for keeping it enabled.
The ansible-hardening role has been updated to disable the DCCP kernel module by default.
V-77823 – Single user mode must require user authentication
Single user mode is often used in emergency situations where the server cannot boot properly or an issue must be repaired without a fully booted server. This mode can only be used at the server’s physical console, serial port, or via out-of-band management (DRAC, iLO, and IPMI). Allowing single-user mode access without authentication is a serious security risk.
Fortunately, every distribution supported by the ansible-hardening role already has authentication requirements for single user mode in place. The ansible-hardening role does not make any adjustments to the single user mode unit file since any untested adjustment could cause a system to have problems booting.
V-77825 – Address space layout randomization (ASLR) must be enabled
ASLR is a handy technology that makes it more difficult for attackers to guess where a particular program is storing data in memory. It’s not perfect, but it certainly raises the difficulty for an attacker. There are multiple settings for this variable and the kernel documentation for sysctl has some brief explanations for each setting (search for
randomize_va_space on the page).
Every distribution supported by the ansible-hardening role is already setting
kernel.randomize_va_space=2 by default, which applies randomization for the basic parts of process memory (such as shared libraries and the stack) as well as the heap. The ansible-hardening role will ensure that the default setting is maintained.